Wednesday, October 24, 2018
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. SPEAKS ON "NEW PHASE OF CIVIL RIGHTS STRUGGLE"-11 MONTHS BEFORE HIS ASSASSINATION!
MLK Talks 'New Phase' Of Civil Rights Struggle, 11 Months Before His Assassination | NBC News
Published on Apr 4, 2018
In 1967, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin Luther King spoke with NBC News' Sander Vanocur about the "new phase" of the struggle for "genuine freedom".
Kurt Willems6 months ago
Just have to say this: The fact that there are (at this time) 14 people who have given this a thumbs down is heartbreaking. I pray for all of my neighbors of color.
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A FACE FOR RADIO5 months ago
A meme about MLK said: MLK wasn’t killed for having a dream, he was killed because he WOKE UP. FACT!!!!
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Jaiafrica6 months ago
I find these videos of him way more impactful than the I have a dream speech.
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Ian Sun6 months ago
This should be required and repeated viewing in all public schools.
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CRC Singleton6 months ago
This should be a mandatory study in our schools. The entire country should know their history.
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Chaylen Patricia5 months ago
This is why he was assassinated! Martin was not assassinated because he had a dream, but because he woke up ! And they will never play his last speeches of his life because he whole philosophy changed to more of a Malcom x approach. This is why they always just play the I have dream speech
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CRC Singleton6 months ago
His mild, intelligent, clear and strong voice speaks louder even today.
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TYRONE THOMPKINS6 months ago
51 years later the same thing
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Purpose Driveñ6 months ago
He was definitely called by God and anointed for this purpose. Intelligence is incredible.
David W. Johnson6 months ago
Awesome footage. He would have made a great president.
Natlleata Williams6 months ago
Every time I hear him speak, my spirit is moved. So eloquent, with a tone of honesty and integrity. He is still, very impactful. His ability to articulate in such a simple, yet profound way is amazing. Amazing man
ROMEY RUSH6 months ago (edited)
Every word used via question and answer had absolute significance. One of the best interviews I have ever seen.
Dereka H.6 months ago
Every issue he is speaking on is still going on.
Sama Alghali6 months ago
This is so relevant today, 2018. It's a referendum on the difference between overt conservative racism and liberal covert racism, and how both are detrimental to the success of the black man/woman.
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Merrill Scott6 months ago
He is so intelligent.
A FACE FOR RADIO5 months ago
Malcolm X spoke about how viscous and racist the North was.
Libra Smith6 months ago
I’m so triggered when people say that slaves were immigrants. There are still people today who’ve convinced themselves that.
Flat Foot6 months ago
Amazing he is so ahead of his time
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KEENster D6 months ago
He was incredible. What a brilliant man and everything he said is so true. His death was such a huge loss.
Ignigma6 months ago
And yet incompetent Caucasian male squandered $16 trillion in a few years
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From Face2Face Africa
BY FARIDA DAWKINS, at 05:00 pm, October 23, 2018, HISTORY
The almost extinct dark-skinned Andamanese people of India who are also called the ‘Negritios.
The Andamanese people are referred to as the ‘Negritos’ that reside in India’s Andaman and the Nicobar Islands in the southeastern portion of the Bay of Bengal. The name ‘Negritos’ is derived from their dark skin tone and physique. They settled in their current location during the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 26,000 years ago and lived in isolation up until the 18th century incorporating little to no contact with the outside world.
After mingling with other civilizations, most Andamanese died and 7,000 survived. Now it said that only 400 to 450 Andamanese people live today. They are made up of the Great Andamanese, Jarawas of the Great Andaman archipelago, the Jangil of Rutland Island, the Onge of Little Andaman and the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island.
The Andamanese are considered a scheduled tribe or belonging to a caste of disenfranchised Indians.
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The Andamanese are comprised of the five large tribes mentioned above; the Great Andamanese on Strait Island are speculated to be 50 in number, the Jarawa of the Jarawas of the Great Andaman archipelago, the Jangil of Rutland Island, the Onge of Little Andaman, and the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island now residing in the West Coast and central parts of South and Middle Andaman Islands are 380 in number as of 2011, the Jangil or Rutland Jarawa of Rutland Island were extinct in 1921, the Onge of Little Andaman have 101 members as of 2011 and the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island is estimated to have 100 to 200 tribe members.
Theory suggests that during the Great Coastal Migration or the Southern Dispersal, populations along the southern coast of Asia, the Arabian Peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia to Oceania crossed East Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb straits 70,000 years ago.
Though Chaubey and Endicott (2013) disagree and say that the Andamanese people migrated from Africa due to the time frame, what else explains their physical features of dark skin, frizzy hair and short stature? One can venture to say their way of life and attributes can be compared to the Pygmy people.
Dental structure states that the structure the Andamanese people’s teeth showed that they were from Africa and South Asia. Further study concluded that dental morphology was similar to that of South Asians.
The cranial formation of the tribe indicates it is similar to that of Africans.
Originally, the Andamanese were hunter-gatherers hunting pigs and fish using bows, adzes – which are cutting tools similar to axes that date back to the stone age and wooden harpoons. They did not know how to generate fire, instead, they used preserved embers from carved out trees as a result of lightning strikes.
The Andamanese, having no permanent or temporary housing structure instead slept on mats or leaves. They also used leaves and hibiscus fiber to make clothing.
They have been documented to also use paint on their bodies.
Oko-pai-ad or tribal members thought to have super-natural powers assisted other members with healthcare using herbal medicine made by medicinal plants.
The Andamanese people speak Aka-Jeru, Ongan or Jarawa-Ongan and Sentinelese – which can be spoken by 50 individuals. Not much is known about the Sentinelese language because tribe members are completely cut off from the rest of the world.
During the British invasion of the southeastern regions of South Andaman from 1789 to 1793, the majority of the Andamanese people perished due to alcoholism, pneumonia, measles and influenza. In 1867 during what was dubbed the Andaman Islands Expedition, British colonialists avenged the death of sailors by the Andamanese by killing them off the Onge. By 1875, the tribe was close to extinction.
In a full-on attempt to obliterate the tribe, the British and Indian governments worked together to establish punitive codes that allowed them to impinge upon Andamanese territory. This exacerbated the dwindling population.
The Andamanese have no formal governance structure and make decisions using group consensus.
When visited by outsiders, the instinct of the Andamanese is to attack, in some cases, some have been killed. In 1996, attacks ceased when settlers took a Jarawa teenager named Enmei to the hospital to nurse his broken foot.
The Andamanese continue to keep strangers at arms-length so there is no current information on how they live their life presently.
FARIDA DAWKINS , Staff Writer
Farida Dawkins is a blogger, video content creator and staff writer at Face2Face Africa. She enjoys writing about relatable and controversial lifestyle issues that pertain to women in Africa and the African diaspora.
Tuesday, October 23, 2018
￼ Vanguard News
Benin: The ancient kingdom of warriors
By Osa Mbonu
My task here is to rewrite, in just one newspaper page, this 569-page historical, cultural, artistic and monarchial encyclopedia printed in 8 or 9 point size letters, so that my readers, as usual, will feel they have read the entire compendium. It is such a daunting task that can only be achieved by a master. Yet, no such successful compression of this 1,500-year of history of one of the greatest ancient civilizations can compensate for the knowledge derivable from reading the entire volume. But do not be deceived, reading of the entire volume of “The Benin Monarchy: An Anthology of Benin History” is not a day’s job, perhaps not weeks’ or months’ depending on the reader’s passion and time available to him. In any case, it is a book no one can afford not to read. Muted, yet so glaring, instructive and worthy of reflection in the history of Benin kingdom, is how a little piece of technology – the firearm – in the hands of the British conquered all the physical strength of Benin warriors, their voodoos, mysticisms, magic, incantations, shrines, human sacrifices and many other forms of superstitions generally associated with Africa, even up to this day in some p-laces. It is a credit to the throne of Benin kingdom that educated Obas have, to a very large extent done away with many of those negative aspects of the Benin culture. If those shrines and human sacrifices could not save Benin people in 1897 from the hands of the British and their muskets and mortars, of what point is it to keep them? An English historian had argued that history is not just the record of past events but the record of change. There is no history in the movement of the hands of the clock since it was invented many centuries ago, for instance, because the movement has ever been clockwise. There could have been history there if at some point the hands of the clock started moving anticlockwise. The history of Benin people, like the history of man, is the history of change. When we sift out fables about men like the first son of Osanobua and Oduduwa dropping from heaven and of the Benin or Ile-Ife being the center and cradles of the world, what we have left are factual stories of ancient men who migrated from other places, settled down in the rain forests around the land known today as Benin, and established small pockets of settlements called villages. Man had led a wandering life in search of food until he was compelled by agriculture to settle down at one place. Those splinter settlements, after existing for a long time without any central ruler like a king, either voluntarily agreed to surrender their independence to one powerful warrior or group of warriors in exchange for protection, or were forced to do so. The result was the emergence of the Ogiso dynasty established around AD 500 beginning with King Ogiso Igodo which saw the reign of 31 Kings before the collapse of that dynasty after King Ogiso Owodo was banished and a period of interregnum followed. At this point, some sequence of events occurred which became, up to this day, subjects of controversy between Benin and the Yoruba people. The Benin people believe that Oduduwa, called Prince Ekaladerhan, was the only son of that exiled King Ogiso Owodo. They believe that Ekaladerhan (or Oduduwa) exiled himself from Benin even before his father, King Ogiso Owodo was banished from Benin. Ekaladerhan or Oduduwa went to and founded Ile-Ife where he became King. After King Ogiso Owodo was deposed and banished, Benin people went in search of the only son of the King, Prince Ekaladerhan (Oduduwa) with the aim of persuading him to return to Benin to succeed his banished father. Instead, Ekaladerhan (Oduduwa) sent his son Prince Oranmiyan to Benin. But there was an administrator named Ogiamen, appointed by the people of Benin to administer Benin during that period of interregnum. Like what the late Gen. Sani Abacha did during Ernest Shonekan’s interim government, Ogiamien was nursing his own ambition – to create his own dynasty. He appointed his son to succeed him. Even though he was resisted by Benin people, Ogiamien and other warlords who contested the throne troubled Oranmiyan and made his stay uncomfortable so much that Oranmiyan decided to return to Ile-Ife, describing Benin as Ile-Ibinu (the land of vexation). The Benin account has it that Oranmiyan reigned as Benin King from AD 1,170 though his palace was at Usama, an outskirt of the city, due to the crisis. When he eventually left, he left behind his Benin queen, Erinmwinde who gave birth to a son, who later became Oba Eweka the First in the year AD 1,200. Historians regard the beginning of the reign of Oranmiyan as the beginning of the second dynasty of kings in Benin kingdom. One implication of the Benin line of history is that Oduduwa, whom the Yoruba claim as their father, did not fall down from heaven after all as they claim. Nobody has ever fallen down from heaven. Even Jesus who is believed to have come from heaven had to be born into the world by a woman. Yoruba people believe that Oduduwa who fell down from heaven had a son who went on a military campaign and founded the Benin Kingdom. But from the Benin perspective, we know that before the return of Oranmiyan to Benin, the Ogiso dynasty in Benin, which saw the reign of 31 kings, had already come to pass. Of these two conflicting historical accounts of the Benin and Yoruba Kingdoms, the Benin version appears to be more tenable. Between AD 1440 and 1606, was the era of warrior kings. This corresponded to the period of Oba Ewuare the Great and Oba Ehengbuda. Apart from the brief reigns of Oba Ezoti and Oba Olua, the rest of the kings that fall within this period were all warrior kings who led their own military forces to battle. These fierce warrior kings went on military campaigns, conquering other peoples and expanding Benin territories and influences which resulted in empire building. Alake urges politicians to put people first The Benin capacity to successfully overrun other people’s lands has been attributed to their trade with Europeans at Ughoton, the Benin port, which bequeathed them with guns and ammunition. The Benin Empire at its zenith was said to have extended to River Niger in the east and south, into Yoruba lands (Oyo) and what came to be known as Dahomey. The 1897 British Invasion The British invasion of Benin in 1897, or what is popularly called The Benin Punitive Expedition, is certainly the most narrated aspect of the Benin history. Needless to recount it here in detail, there are, however, tremendous lessons to be learned from that sad historical event for those who are wont to learn. For men never learn from history. First, the Benin, as that time of British invasion, was an Empire. An Empire is just a fanciful word that describes a bully geographical entity that takes pleasure in overrunning and pillaging other geographical entities for economic and political gains. Britain was also an Empire, in fact, the biggest Empire in the world as at then. While Benin, the lesser empire was happily overrunning and pillaging her neighboring enclaves, it did never occur to her that a higher human power (not even God) was at hand to emasculate her for similar motives. Prince Idugbowa who became the Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi (1888-1914) was the unfortunate King on the Benin throne when series of events brewed and culminated in war between Benin and Britain. The war, in summary, was caused by economic factors – the British traders and most of their African collaborators wanted unimpeded access to the forests and lands of Benin which they saw as land flowing with milk and honey, but the powerful and independent Oba refused to allow that to happen. The Oba, as usual, was bent on controlling trade and charging custom duties. Before the punitive expedition, however, Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi had acquired a notorious reputation as a tyrant king whose domain was littered with the skeletons and bloods of those he had either used for sacrifice or political opponents he had executed. Truly, Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi had carried out a somewhat large scale purge of his enemies – those whom he had considered threats to his throne, those with who he had contested the throne and those who had opposed him as crown prince before his coronation. This was usual in those days of monumental intrigues occasioned by struggles for the throne. Partly in an effort to give a dog a bad name in order to hang it, Benin was described by Europeans as ‘City of Blood’, ‘City of Skulls’ , and as land strewn with ‘huge pits filled with the dead and dying’. In 1862, the first consular visit was undertaken by Sir Richard Burton who returned with description of Benin as a place of ‘gratuitous barbarity which stinks of blood and as having a ‘bloody custom’. After numerous efforts (including tricking the Oba into signing the Gallwey Treaty of 1892) to peacefully get the Oba to allow the British traders and their local guides unimpeded access to the natural wealth of Benin forests, the British resolved to forcefully remove the Oba. Several other British officials like Vice-Consul Copland Crawford tried to reach Benin but failed because the King was unwilling to receive them. All these people were infuriated with the Oba and therefore mounted pressure on the Colonial Administration for military action to be taken against the Oba, “so as to open up,” in the words of merchant James Pinnock of Liverpool, “the road and country (of Benin) teeming as it does with every natural wealth of the great hinterland of the world”. Oba Ewuare II Foundation commences free feeding for less-privileged in Benin Sir Raph Moor, who succeeded Macdonald as the Consul General stated that “in the event of the foregoing peaceful means proving of no avail, it then becomes necessary to resort to force. “In the Benin and Warri districts,” Moor continued, “all developments except existing trade is completely prevented by the attitude of the King of Benin, who still declines to receive government officers or to allow them to enter his country in any direction peaceably. He punishes severely those of his people who even in outlying districts venture to receive them and arbitrarily stops trade from time to time without assigning any reason. “At the present time trade has absolutely been stopped in Benin by his orders…without giving up his evil practices the king knows that he cannot admit the government into his country.” After these report, Moor recommended that an expeditionary force should be sent in January or February “to remove the king and his jujumen from the country.” •Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi…during his exile days in Calabar. When Moor went on leave, Acting Consul General, Lt. James Philips, “after asking for the Foreign Office permission to use force against Benin in November 1896, set out, before getting a reply, on a risky trip,” writes Philip Aigbona Igbafe. “I am certain that there is only one remedy,” James Philips had written, “that is to depose the King of Benin from his stool. I am convinced from information which leaves no room for doubt as well as from experience of the native character, that pacific means are now quite useless, and that the time has come to remove the obstruction. I therefore ask his Lordship’s permission to visit Benin City in February next to depose and remove the King of Benin and to establish a native council in his place and take such further steps for the opening up of the country as the occasion may require.” 2018 QMA cultural pageant: rebranding culture According to Igbafe, Philips had erroneously believed that Benin people would be glad to be rid of a king who was a ‘tyrant’ and a ‘despot’”. Although the Foreign Office did not approve of a military action against Benin due to the financial cost and insufficient troops, Philips calculated that the cost of the expedition could be offset by sale of large collection of ivory and other artifacts that would be looted from the king’s palace. The disapproval, writes Igbafe, “was communicated to Consul General Philips in a cablegram of 8 January 1897 followed by a dispatch of 9 January 1897. Before messages got to the Niger Coast Protectorate, Philips was already dead, for he hurriedly set out to Benin on a mission, defying the warnings of the Itsekiri traders, the advice of Chief Dogho, the Oba’s communicated preference to receive him a month later and insistence of messengers from the Oba not to proceed with the journey. According to Igbafe, “on 2 January 1897, Philips set out from Sapele for Benin, accompanied by several Protectorate officials, representatives of the European trading firms and numerous carriers. At Gele Gele, on the night of 2 January, messengers sent earlier to the Oba arrived with the Oba’s thanks and requests to defer the visits by one month as he was engaged in the traditional Igue festival.” The Itsekiri traders at Ughoton also warned Philips against proceeding with the journey, reporting that Benin soldiers were lurking in the forests along the route. But Philip was bent on proceeding. He sent messages back to the Oba informing him of his intention to continue the journey. “On 4 January, the expedition left Ughoton, and marching in a single file, the party ran into the ambush laid by Benin soldiers near the village of Ugbine. All the European members of the party were killed except two with military experience, Commander R.H. Bacon and Captain Alan Boisragn who went down on their bellies when the firing began.” The backlash of the killing of Philips and his party was the Punitive Expedition. Nine ships and soldiers drawn from Her Majesty’s army from all over the British Empire were congregated against the Oba and the Benin people. Moor’s leave was cut short and he was assigned to lead the troops to Benin. “He arrived at the Warigi base operation on 9 February 1897 and on the 10th the advance on Benin began. Capturing Sapoba on the 11th and Ologbo on the 12th, the troop advanced from Ologbo on the 14th with Benin soldiers heroically contesting the route in a running fight all the way. Benin was captured on 18 February, after the British troops had fired some rockets tubes into the city. The rockets broke the resistance of the Benin soldiers. The Oba and most of the chiefs ran from the city after being bombarded by what they believed to be invisible enemies. The British then entered the palace and looted all its wealth – ivories, artifacts and many other valuables which were transported to Europe, many of which could be seen today in the British Museum and other parts of Europe and America. Traders’ groups, drivers’ unions, others gear up for 2018 Alaghodaro Summit The Oba and his chiefs were put to trial. Some of the Benin warriors chose to suicide in preference to public hangings. At a reconvened trial on 9 September 1897, Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi was sentenced to exile from his fallen kingdom. His wives were disbanded and he was chained, handcuffed, gagged, strapped in a hammock and taken away from Benin on 13 September 1897 on the Protectorate yacht Ivy to Old Calabar where he became seriously ill on 9 January 1914 and died on 13 January 1914. The banishment of Oba Ovonramwen N’Ogbaisi, though it ushered in another round of period of interregnum in the history of Benin Kingdom, did not bring an end to it. After that interregnum, Oba Eweka II (1914-1933) and the 37th Oba arose. Then from 1933-1978, Oba Akenzua II, described as the grandeur of royalty and the first educated monarch in the history of Benin, was installed on 5 April 1933. He ran a transparent monarchy in terms of removal of human sacrifices, especially in the burial of his father, Oba Eweka II. From 1979-2016, Oba Erediauwa, the 39th Oba, called the Philosopher King, sat on the throne. He was an author and writer of repute. He was instrumental to the creation of Edo State. From Oba Erediauwa, the Benin Kingdom fell into the hands the present King, Oba Ewuare II, the Philosopher and Diplomat King. He has a Master’s degree in Public Administration from the United States and has served as Nigerian Ambassador to several countries. Although His Royal Majesty, Omo N’Oba N’Edo Uku Akpolokpolo, Ewuare II, has made a lot of significant achievements, his reign and life are still on the trajectory of time and as such, no complete assessment of his achievements or failures, as the case may be, can be made. Any such assessment, besides being incomplete, may also border on praise-singing by the assessor aimed at courting and currying the favor of the King.
BLACK CHRISTIAN SCIENCE LECTURERS-BOSEDE BAKAREY ON "A Spiritual Approach to Healthcare and Its Certainty of Healing" on YouTube
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A GASTRONOMIC TOUR THROUGH BLACK HISTORY/BHM 2012
This is a different kind of Black History tour - through food - which has sustained us and entertained us for centuries. Each day, during the month of February, I hope to enlighten us, as well as tantalize our tastebuds. This 'tour' is dedicated to my maternal grandmother, Grammy Velma, who was a phenomenal cook; and whose love we could taste in every delectable bite of the dishes she prepared for family and friends. I hope that you enjoy it. Thank you for reading.
February 19, 2012
BLACK WALL STREET – WHEN TULSA BURNED
Greenwood is a neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma. As one of the most successful and wealthiest African-American communities in the United States during the early 20th Century, it was popularly known as America's "Black Wall Street" until the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. The riot was one of the most devastating race riots in history; and it destroyed the once-thriving Greenwood community. Here is the story of what led up to the riot and what occurred, thereafter. It is a bit long, but please bear with me because I think it is a story worth telling; and the details are necessary.
In the early 1900s, Tulsa [at that time, aka Indian Territory] had quickly become a very impressive, modern city. It gleamed so much, that it became known as Magic City. There were tall office buildings, electric trolleys, a bridge across the Arkansas River, and freshly-painted homes, which continued to push the boundaries of the city limits. By 1910, it had become a boomtown of 10,000 residents – and the word was spreading that fortunes could be made, and lives could be built and rebuilt, there.
What caused this remarkable, economic growth? In a word: OIL. It gushed like water.
Glenn Pool Oil Gusher
The discovery of the nearby Glenn Pool, which, at the time was reputed to be the ‘richest small oil field in the world’, helped to soon establish Tulsa as the "Oil Capital of the World," headquartering the offices of four-hundred different oil and gas companies and their suppliers.
By 1920, Tulsa’s population had skyrocketed to 100,000 people. The city boasted four different railroads, a commercial airport, a convention hall, new government buildings, schools and parks, four different telegraph companies, 10,000 telephone lines, seven banks, dozens of service businesses, such as insurance and accountancy, 250 attorneys, 150 doctors, 60 dentists, two newspapers, and lots of shiny automobiles.
By 1921, there was prosperity for almost everyone – including the nearly ten-thousand African-American residents, who lived in the [what was later named] Greenwood section of Tulsa. But this caused significant tensions between the races; and many White Tulsa residents derogatorily dubbed the neighborhood, “Little Africa”. They felt threatened by the success of the African-American community, and worried that it might continue to grow.
Many Greenwood residents had ties to the region that stretched back for generations. Some were the descendants of slaves, who had accompanied the Native-Americans on the Trail of Tears; others were the children and grandchildren of runaway slaves who had fled to the Indian nations in the years prior to, and during, the Civil War; and a few elderly residents had been born into slavery, but eventually emancipated. However, most of Tulsa's African-American residents had come to Oklahoma – primarily from Southern States, in wagons, on horseback, by train, and on foot – like their White neighbors, in the great boom years, just before and after Statehood. For many, Oklahoma represented not only a chance to escape the harsher racial realities of life in the former States of the Old South, but was literally a land of hope; a place worth sacrificing for; a place to start anew.
Prominent Greenwood Residents
The area was founded by wealthy African-Americans, O.W. Gurley and J.B. Stradford, who had arrived in Tulsa at the turn of the century. Among Mr. Gurley's first businesses was a rooming house which was located on a dusty trail near the railroad tracks. This road was given the name Greenwood Avenue, named for a city in Mississippi. Mr. Stradford built the Stradford Hotel on Greenwood Avenue, where Black people could enjoy the amenities of the downtown hotels who served only White people. It was said to be the largest Black-owned hotel in the United States, at the time. Another early resident was B.C. Franklin, who moved to Tulsa to set up law practice.
Greenwood was home to several prominent Black businessmen, many of them multimillionaires and six of whom owned their own planes. There were also thriving churches, schools, grocery stores, clothing stores, barbershops, newspapers, and much more, in the area. Not only did African-Americans want to contribute to the success of their own shops and businesses, but also the racial segregation laws prevented them from living or shopping anywhere other than Greenwood (In 1916, Tulsa had passed an ordinance forbidding Blacks or Whites from residing on any block where three-fourths or more of the residents were of the other race. This made residential segregation mandatory in the city). Although multimillionaires, most of the African-Americans’ homes were much more modest than their White neighbors’ homes. They were poorly constructed, with outdoor plumbing and unpaved streets, which only had surface drainage systems. Other residents included realtors, lawyers and doctors, including Dr. A.C. Jackson, who was considered the “most able Negro surgeon in America,” by the Mayo brothers.
Greenwood was one of the most affluent communities and it became known as “Black Wall Street [originally, Negro Wall Street].” The citizens of Greenwood took pride in its affluence because it was something they had all to themselves and did not have to share with the White community of Tulsa, which probably added to the tension between the two races. Exacerbating this ‘tinder box’ was the fact that by 1921, there were an estimated 3,200 members of The Ku Klux Klan living in the city.
Tulsa KKK Meeting 1921
On May 30, 1921 – a Memorial Day holiday – a young, African-American man, named Dick Rowland, reportedly sexually assaulted a young White woman, named Sarah Page, in an elevator. Many felt, and still feel, that this story was, at least in part, fabricated by Miss Page. What was known was that they worked in the same building – The Drexel Building – he, as a shoe shiner, and she, as an elevator operator. Mr. Rowland entered the elevator that afternoon to use the top floor restroom, which was restricted to Black people. Soon thereafter, a White man, who worked in the building, heard what sounded like a woman’s scream, and subsequently saw Mr. Rowland running from the building, so he alerted the authorities. What was not known was why they were both working on Memorial Day, when most businesses were closed for the holiday; and whether the two may have been forbidden, secret lovers, who may have had an argument. It was also speculated that Mr. Rowland may have had a simple accident, such as tripping, and unavoidably had to steady himself against Miss Page – causing her to scream.
Many who knew Mr. Rowland – both White and Black – defended his character and said that he was not capable of such an assault. After the police questioned Miss Page, she said that she would not be pressing charges; however, the next morning, Mr. Rowland was still arrested and detained at the courthouse.
Tulsa Courthouse - 1921
The Tulsa Tribune, one of the two, White-owned newspapers, got word of the incident and chose to publish the story in the paper, the next day, on May 31, 1921, with the headline: "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl In an Elevator.”
In the same edition, the paper published an editorial warning of a potential lynching of Mr. Rowland. The editorial, titled "To Lynch Negro Tonight", was said to have reported White residents assembling that evening to lynch the teenage, Mr. Rowland. Mysteriously, that second editorial is now missing from the paper's archives.
Because of the second editorial, the White Tulsa residents organized a mob; and the Greenwood residents armed themselves, as well, to try to defend Mr. Rowland, themselves, and personal and commercials properties. A direct confrontation between the two groups quickly ensued in front of the courthouse, where guns were fired. Soon, the mob moved into Greenwood and began to loot and torch 35 blocks of the poorly-constructed residents’ homes and businesses – killing anyone who tried to stop them, including the aforementioned, Dr. Jackson, who was shot to death as he left his home during the riot.
Greenwood Burning - May 31, 1921
Greenwood Burning - May 31, 1921
Greenwood Burning - May 31, 1921
Those who were not killed and who were not armed, tried to flee from Greenwood.
Children Fleeing the Tulsa Race Riot
Those who were not successful, were arrested and detained.
Greenwood Resident Surrendering
Aerial firebombs were dropped from airplanes; and firemen were held at gunpoint to prevent them from dousing the infernos. Over 600 successful businesses were lost. Among these were 21 churches, 21 restaurants, 30 grocery stores and two movie theaters, plus a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries, schools, law offices, and the public buses.
National Guard Troops were eventually deployed on the afternoon of June 1; but by that time, there was not much left of the once-thriving Greenwood district.
Greenwood - June 1, 1921
At the time of the riot, headlines estimated 100 people dying.
However, the American Red Cross estimated that over 300 people were killed – many of whom were buried in unmarked, mass graves. It also listed 8,624 persons in need of assistance, in excess of 1,000 homes being destroyed, an estimated 10,000 people being left homeless and having to live in tents, and more than 6,000 Greenwood residents being arrested and detained at three local facilities – many of whom died while in custody.
Tulsa Race Riot - Red Cross Workers
Tulsa Race Riot - Tent Living
A Grand Jury in Tulsa ruled that Police Chief, John Gustafson, was responsible for the riot because he neglected his duty; and removed him from office. In a subsequent trial, he was found guilty of failing to taker proper precautions for protecting life and property, and for conspiring to free automobile thieves and collect rewards. However, the former Chief never served time in prison. Instead, he returned to his private detective practice. No legal records indicate that any other White official was ever charged of wrongdoing or even negligence. No charges were filed against any individual White rioters.
Within five years after the riot, surviving residents who chose to remain in Tulsa rebuilt much of the district. The neighborhood was a hotbed of jazz and blues in the 1920s. They accomplished this despite the opposition of many White Tulsa political and business leaders. It resumed being a vital Black community until segregation was overturned by the Federal Government during the 1950s and '60s. Desegregation encouraged Black residents to live and shop elsewhere in the city, causing Greenwood to lose much of its original vitality. Since then, city leaders have attempted to encourage other economic development activity nearby.
The division between White and Black Tulsa residents was so deep that the end of the riot did not even begin to bring reconciliation. The events of the riot were omitted from local and State history; "The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 was rarely mentioned in history books, classrooms or even in private. Black and White residents grew up being unaware of what had taken place."
Revitalization and preservation efforts in the ‘90s and Noughties resulted in tourism initiatives, such as the Dr. John Hope (descendant of survivor, B.C. Franklin) Reconciliation Park and memorials.
The Greenwood Cultural Center, dedicated in October 1996, was created as a tribute to Greenwood’s history.
That same year, following increased attention to the riot because of the 75th anniversary of the event, the State Legislature authorized the Tulsa Race Riot Commission, to study and prepare an "historical account" of the riot. The study "enjoyed strong support from members of both political parties and all political persuasions." The Commission delivered its report on February 21, 2001.
The report recommended actions for substantial restitution; in order of priority:
Direct payment of reparations to survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot;
Direct payment of reparations to descendants of the survivors of the Tulsa Race Riot;
A scholarship fund available to students affected by the Tulsa Race Riot;
Establishment of an economic development enterprise zone in the historic area of the Greenwood district; and
A memorial for the reburial of the remains of the victims of the Tulsa Race Riot.
Some of those were implemented. Others were not.
Five elderly survivors of the riot, led by a legal team including Johnnie Cochran and Charles Ogletree, filed suit against the City of Tulsa and the State of Oklahoma (Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al.) in February 2003, based on the findings of the 2001 report. The plaintiffs did not seek reparations as such; rather, they asked for the establishment of educational and health-care resources for current residents of Greenwood. The Federal District and Appellate Courts dismissed the suit, citing the Statute of Limitations on the 80-year-old case, and the US Supreme Court refused to hear the appeal. In April 2007, Dr. Ogletree appealed to the US Congress to pass a bill extending the Statute of Limitations for the case. It never received a vote, and they are still seeking justice.
Dr. Olivia Hooker - February 2012
One of those survivors who sued was Dr. Olivia Hooker, who celebrated her 97th birthday last week. When the riots happened, she was just 6 years old; but she remembers the whole incident quite vividly, as people broke into and destroyed her family’s home and arrested her father, saying, “You don’t forget something like that.” She feels blessed to have survived and went on to become the first Black woman in the Coast Guard and to earn a Doctorate in Psychology. She continues to live in Oklahoma.
Other key players who survived, but moved away from Tulsa included Greenwood Founder, Mr. Gurley, who exiled himself to California and drifted into obscurity; and Dick Rowland, who had remained safe in the courthouse until the morning of June 1st , when he was taken out of town in secrecy. All charges were dropped; and he never returned to Tulsa.
In 2011, the Greenwood Cultural Center lost 100% of its funding from the State of Oklahoma. As a result, the Center may be forced to close its doors. A fundraising campaign in now underway to try to raise private funds to keep the educational and cultural facility open. If you would like to learn more, please click here.
The survivors are all now being honored in a recently-released documentary, called "Before They Die! The Road to Reparations for the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot Survivors". If you are living in NYC, and have time tomorrow, Feb. 20, there will be a benefit screening of the documentary, with a Q&A with the film's Director, Reggie Turner. Click here to learn more.
The horrific events which took place over 90 years ago will be etched in Tulsa's history and in the ‘soil’ forever. However, I know both Black and White people, who live in the city; and I feel very confident that the city is now well on its way to achieving harmony between the two races.
Chef Justin Thompson has recently opened a restaurant in Tulsa, called Juniper. This is one of his favorite recipes, which he often makes for himself. Enjoy!
Sweet Corn Rotisserie Chicken Salad
Serves 2 to 4
Recipe converter here: http://southernfood.about.com/library/info/blconv.htm
2 ears corn (or canned sweet corn, if you are pressed for time or it out of season)
1/4 cup diced celery
1/4 cup diced Sweet onion
1 tablespoon finely chopped chives
1/4 cup crumbled feta cheese
1/4 cup Dijon mustard
1/4 cup mayonnaise (Hellmann’s always tastes best)
1 teaspoon curry powder
1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1 teaspoon kosher salt
1/2 store-bought rotisserie or roasted chicken, meat pulled from the bone into large pieces
Heat oven to 350 degrees F. Place ears of corn on a baking sheet and roast for 5 minutes. Let cool slightly and remove kernels from cobs; set aside in a bowl. Add all remaining ingredients except for the chicken to the bowl and stir to combine. Gently fold in the chicken to keep it in large pieces. Serve as a sandwich on toasted bread, or as a salad over greens with some sliced tomatoes.
Sources: Wikipedia, TulsaReparations.org, Harlem OneStop, Google, Bing
Zena at 12:59 PM
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I'm an American-British, dual-citizen, living in Coastal Georgia, after 19 yrs abroad; and I am curious about life - past, present and future.
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Monday, October 22, 2018
From Face2Face Africa
at 06:00 pm, September 26, 2018
How a Senegalese princess sold into slavery in the 1700s became a wealthy plantation owner in Florida
Monday, October 08, 2018
By Gbenga Salau, Chris Irekamba, Emeka Nwachukwu and Isaac Taiwo 08 October 2018 |
General Superintendent, Deeper Christian Life Ministry, Pastor William Folorunso Kumuyi (left); Vice President, Yemi Osinbajo; Governor Akinwunmi Ambode and his wife, Bolanle, during an interdenominational service to mark Nigeria’s 58th independence anniversary at the church headquarters in Gbagada, Lagos…yesterday. PHOTO: FEMI ADEBESIN-KUTI
Vice President Yemi Osibanjo, Governor Akinwumi Ambode and the General Overseer of Deeper Christian Life Ministry
at the church headquarters by the Lagos State government to mark the country’s 58th independence anniversary yesterday in Gbagada, they noted that for Nigeria to thrive, the citizenry must rise above personal interests.
Osibanjo who spoke on the theme, Coming of Age, pointed out that the country had come of age and would continue to make progress if only Nigerians would eschew corruption, unrighteousness and ethnicity.
posted from Bloggeroid
Saturday, October 06, 2018
A BLACK STANDARD OF BEAUTY BASED ON THE BLACK SKINNED W,AFRICA,BEAUTIFUL BLACK SKINNED MEN AND WOMEN-DO NOT BLEACH AND KILL YOURSELF SLOWLY WITH CANCER!,BLACK GIRLS,BLACK PEOPLE,BLACK RACE,BLACK SKINNED BEAUTIES,BLEACHING,CANCER,NIGERIA,skin,
2018 8:00AM EDT TRENDS
This Fashion Shoot Aims to Celebrate Dark Skin Women and Combat Colorism
"Always keep in mind that the world’s disdain for your skin isn’t personal, it’s political.”
Creators' Circle is a fashion series that gives visionary young artists carte blanche to execute a photo shoot or art display —100 percent on their own terms.
Fashion is at its best when it’s born from a desire to challenge, to represent, to honor, and to progress. As stylists, designers and photographers have demonstrated time and time again, fashion can be so much more than what we wear: it's a representation of how we see the world. Artists wield the power to empower and to represent the world as we’d like to see it — that’s the magic of fashion.
Earlier this year, photographer Zoe Lawrence was scrolling through Instagram stories when she saw a post by her friend, Cienna, that she empathized with on a deeply personal level. “She posted something about her little sister [Halia] feeling inadequate and it brought me back to my own experience throughout grade school,” says Zoe. “Black girls are are often overlooked, ignored and quieted, and we learn early on that we are not part of the standard for beauty. That can be damaging to an impressionable 12-year-old child.”
Zoe reached out to Cienna via DM, explaining that she wanted to put together a photo shoot featuring Halia with the goal of showing her that her voice matters and that she is beautiful, despite what mainstream beauty standards propagate. Soon, the two were exchanging their own stories about growing up and dealing with colorism .
“I've spoken to other dark-skinned black girls about experiencing colorism and how it affected their self-confidence,” says Zoe. “Cienna and I have both done our work to unlearn those harmful messages. What saved my self esteem was surrounding myself with black people. Black people are healing. Swapping experiences, opening up dialogues, building a community within your own community, keeping your allies close — these are all ways to combat anti-blackness.”
And, of course, through art.
Materialized as a means of empowerment for Halia and to serve as a visual love letter for black girls, this photoshoot is the latest in our Creator’s Circle series. Starring Halia and Cienna, it features designs from two clothing companies with black men and women at their helm. “This shoot was a chance for Halia to get dressed up in clothes she wouldn’t normally wear and see herself in the media, specifically fashion photography,” explains Zoe.
The standout denim and knitwear in the shoot are created by Los Angeles-based brand, No Sesso. The Italian name literally translates to “no sex/ gender.” Founded by Pierre Davis in 2015, No Sesso is a community brand focused on “empowering people of all colors, shapes, and identities via fashion presentations, parties, educational activations, and more,” according to their website. “I’ve walked in three of their runway shows — at this point they’re family to me,” says Zoe. “I always feel taken care of by them and feel a great sense of inspiration when I work with them.”
Kenneth Nicholson brought the impeccably tailored menswear to the shoot. Having served in the United States Army, the designer is inspired by military dress and mixes its precise tailoring with other techniques and aesthetics he picked up during his global travels. “I fell in love with how detail oriented Kenneth is with his pieces,” says Zoe. “I like to use brands that showcase black people in an refreshing way and I feel like both of these designers do a amazing job at showing how dynamic black people are.”
The shoot toes the line between stately-cool family portraiture and a hazy fairy-like dreamworld — two very different concepts that somehow flow seamlessly into one another. At first glance, you probably wouldn’t glean the weight of the message the project encapsulates. It’s only once you hear the personal story behind it that it’s importance and underlying themes really sink in. “Always keep in mind that the world’s disdain for your skin
isn’t personal, it’s political,” concludes Zoe. “I hope young black girls can remember that sentiment the next time they catch themselves internalizing any form of anti-blackness.” Ariana Marsh
posted from Bloggeroid
posted from Bloggeroid
Thursday, October 04, 2018
ARETHA FRANKLIN FUNERAL AUG. 31, 2018
Fantasia Kicked Off Her Heels Before Her Aretha Tribute So You Already Know What Time It Is
By Dee Lockett
You haven’t been properly eulogized until you’ve had Fantasia Barrino sing you to the heavens. At Aretha Franklin’s marathon funeral in Detroit on Friday, we had to wait until close to the end to hear her booming voice, but it was worth the wait. Before launching into a gobsmacking mix of “Precious Lord, Take My Hand” and “You’ve Got a Friend,” Fantasia kicked off her heels (“I think she won’t mind,” she said), clutched her kerchief tight, then did what she does best: blew the roof off the place
posted from Bloggeroid